Each cytologic description should contain information regarding the morphologic characteristic of bacteria (cocci or rod), the presence or absence of Malassezia and leukocytes, whether bacteria were phagocytized by leukocytes, and a semiquantitative estimation of the relative numbers of each type of organism seen. In the external canal, cytology has been shown to be more sensitive than culture and sensitivity5,10; but this is not always the case in samples collected from the tympanic cavity.8. Eighty-three dogs with clinical signs of otitis externa and with ear cytology revealing microbial organisms were studied. Reported as Mean Number of Organisms per High-Dry Field (40× Objective). Continuing with my focus on diagnostic tips, today I’ll share my approach to ear canal cytology in dogs and cats. However, since determining the relative significance of cytologic findings requires a thorough understanding of what is and is not normally found in the external ear canals of dogs and cats, a discussion of normal cytology is appropriate. This is comparable to what is observed in dogs ear pinna shape does not influence ear meatus temperature [16]. In order to maintain consistency in cytologic evaluation, each specimen should be specifically evaluated for the presence, estimated number, and morphologic characteristics of three specific features: yeast, bacteria, and leukocytes. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp. Cytologic estimation of numbers can provide a guideline for the clinician; in the end, however, the decision to treat, dogs and 63% for cats. Cytologically, Candida are thin-walled, round to oval, and approximately 2 to 6 μm in diameter.23 A thin, clear capsule displaces stain and sediment, giving the appearance of a halo around the yeast body. Dogs with bacterial ear infections may have yellow-brown debris or pus in the ears. The temperature within the external ear canal rises if otitis externa is present, to a mean of 38.9°C (102°F). Today we are only concerned with cytology of canine and feline ears. These organisms are often associated with signs of otitis externa (eg, head shaking, scratching at the ears, erythema, ceruminous gland hyperplasia, waxy otic exudate). Apply several drops of mineral oil to a clean glass slide. Your veterinarian will look under a microscope at material from the ear canal, also known as an ear cytology. In the external canal, cytology has been shown to be more sensitive than culture and sensitivity. Melanin granules do not take up stain; therefore, granules can be differentiated from purple-stained bacteria by focusing up and down through the cell until the true color of the structure is recognized. My 9 year chocolate lab, has fowl breath, I brushed his teeth and the smell was a lot less, I asked my vet to examine his teeth, and my Vet, said no worries, there a typical 9 Year lab mouth and there normal with no concerns, he also has a bacteria cocci ear infection and I’m cleaning it every day with the vets cleaner and drops, but it’s not getting better, it’s been over a month….. should I get a 2nd opinion…… the Vet said he is completely healthy and is just immuno compromised and wrote a low dose steroid and suggested it for the lifetime of the lab…… but I researched more diet changes and and trying a holistic approach with no grain, raw fruits and veggies and Merricks grain free cans, am I doing the right thing or should I just listen to the veg and keep him on steroids forever and should I pursue getting his teeth cleaned or listen to the vets observation when my gut tells me different…… My lab, has always been the picture of perfect health, lean and clean, but now all of a sudden after he got all his vaccines….. it’s like he’s super sick and we can’t get a grip on it….. he was also excessively drooling and eye gunk too….. The immediate result allows for rational decision making at the time of the initial consultation, prior to return of culture and sensitivity results 48 to 72 hours later. Cerumen and ointment-based medications do not take up stain and are of little interest. The precise method for marking slides is less important than consistency. Swab with brown debris came from the right ear. Required fields are marked *. A complete record of all three cytologic features is necessary to monitor progression of disease or response to therapy. In general, morphologically coccoid bacteria found in the ear canal are gram-positive organisms (e.g.. Many thanks go out to the many veterinarians who helped write and contribute photos. Aim: Cytological examination is crucial for the diagnosis and classification of canine otitis externa. ROUTINE STAIN MAINTENANCE: 1. Next comes evaluation under the microscope. Place a coverslip directly onto the mineral oil and examine the specimen with low magnification (4× or 10× objective). Abstract. ear cytology where cocci are common[19,20,21]. Intermediate values are considered a gray zone (Table 3-1). Black/brown debri (sweet smell): ear mites. Cytology can also help us find cancerous cells growing in the ear canal(s). For cats, fewer than four bacteria per 40× field (1.6 per 100× field) was consistent with normal conditions, and more than 15 bacteria per 40× field (6 per 100× field) was abnormal. Archiving of otic cytology is not always necessary if a detailed description is written into the medical record. In: Manual of Skin Diseases of the Dog and Cat. It’s personal preference. and Proteus spp. To obtain consistent samples in awake or painful patients, veterinarians should aim for the junction of the vertical and horizontal canals, where the cartilage bends at a 75-degree angle. Cytology . If otitis media is suspected and the tympanum appears to be intact, sample collection should be performed by myringotomy—the intentional perforation of the tympanic membrane with a sterile swab, needle, or catheter. Malassezia spp. I wanted to be conservative. Seemingly simple cases can become complicated by treatment failure, recurrence, and progressively worsening physical changes. Samples were collected from both ears of each dog by inserting two swabs successively into each ear canal, rotating each once through 360° and then rolling it out in a line on to a glass slide. The consequence is often poor case management, prolongation of treatment, or even treatment failure and progression of disease. Performing a gram stain is necessary to obtain this additional information, but extra staining is often an unnecessary and time-consuming task. The finding of bacteria that have been engulfed by phagocytic neutrophils and macrophages is one clear indication of relevance (Figure 3-5). Using higher magnification, fewer than two bacteria per high-oil field (100× objective) is normal, and more than 10 bacteria per field is abnormal. Dogs with long pendulous ears are most commonly affected [2]. This is comparable to what is observed in dogs ear pinna shape does not influence ear meatus temperature [16]. In order to obtain the best diagnostic slide, be prepared to collect the sample prior to introduction of any cleaning agent or other therapy. An alternative to the swab is a rounded ear curette. Ear disease in dogs and cats can develop for a variety of reasons including ear mites, ear infections (bacterial or yeast) and allergies. A number of predisposing factors are identified such as anatomical ear canal stenosis, hair in the ear Bacterial culture is performed to identify species and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of clinically relevant bacteria. The ear and anal infections were the cause of IBS so new prescription dog food was $41.98. Thus, cytology is rarely performed on normal asymptomatic ear canals. In tropical climates, coliform bacteria may be considered a normal finding. The diameter of most coccoid bacteria is typically 0.3 μm; coliform, rod bacteria are typically less than 1.5μm in length. 12, 13 In dogs … The principal factor affecting the microflora within the external ear canal is the microenvironment. Every dog needs regular bathing and having clean ears is an important part of this grooming routine. Cytology and histopathology of the ear in health and disease. Recording “bacterial otitis” alone does not supply sufficient information for later comparison. Clinical Atlas of Small Animal Cytology provides an essential guide for interpreting cytologic samples to diagnose small animal patients. If the veterinarian avoids straightening the canal, the bend should prevent the swab from advancing too deeply and damaging the tympanic membrane. 2 nd ed. Clinically significant organisms should be symmetrical, have a distinct smooth edge, and be uniformly stained; they are typically present in pairs or chains of bacteria equal in size (Figure 3-3). If your dog scratches enough, the insides of his ears could start bleeding. Sample can be heat-fixed if exudative, although most don’t have to be! A, Roll swab along glass slide. Cytologic samples can be collected from the lumen of … Cytology from severe bacterial otitis with, Because the different species may have variable morphologic features and staining characteristics, veterinarians may notice unusually shaped yeast bodies on cytologic preparations. In: Gotthelf LN, ed. Determining the significance of bacteria seen on cytology depends on several factors: morphology, numbers, and concurrent leukocytes. For dogs prone to developing ear infections, you should get on a regular schedule to clean the ears. If your dog tends to have hair growth inside the ear canals, the hair should be plucked regularly (usually every 2 months or so depending on the rate of growth). West Sussex: Blackwell; 2008:162-172. Cytology can characterize the severity of overgrowth or infection; also, in cases of mixed infection, cytology assists in evaluating the relative significance of each organism, strengthening interpretation of culture and sensitivity data. Scan the slide at low magnification to locate an area of interest. Normal cornified squamous epithelial cells are seen on microscopic examination as sheets of lightly stained, basophilic keratin. An ear cytology is a laboratory procedure that allows us to microscopically (under a microscope) see what is ‘growing’ in a patient’s ear. 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